Funded by a Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission grant, this website was created by Government Documents Librarian Dr. Theresa McDevitt, with content from Sonya Stewart.

The following resources represent the migration of African Americans to Indiana County and Western Pennsylvania. During the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, many African Americans came to this region to find work and live in the small coal mining communities of Western Pennsylvania.





  • Crew, Spencer R.Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration, 1915-1940. Washington, D.C.: Department of Public Programs, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, 1987.
  • Gottlieb, Peter. Making Their Own Way: Southern Blacks' Migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
  • Trotter, Joe William.Coal, Class, and Color: Blacks in Southern West Virginia, 1915-1932, Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.
  • Smith, EricLedell. African Americans in Pennsylvania: Shifting Historical Perspectives. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.


  • Stephenson, Clarence. The Impact of the Slavery Issue on Indiana County. Marion Center, Pa.:Mahoning Mimeograph and Pamphlet Service, 1964.
  • "Indiana Area Blacks Battle for Civil Rights," Indiana Gazette, June 8, 1985.
  • Trotter, Joe W. Reflections on the Great Migration to Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh History 78 (4), 1995-1996, p. 153-157.
  • Kozol, Jonathan. "Expanding Academic Conscience,"Saturday Review,51 (August 17, 1968), p. 21-23.


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