The Reference list provides information for readers who may want to access the sources you cite in your paper. The Reference page is located at the end of your paper. Start a new page and title your list Reference. Then list in alphabetical order all the sources that you have cited in the paper. Unless your instructor asks for them, sources not actually cited in the paper should not be given in this list, even if you have read them.

How to alphabetize your print sources

  • Organize your Reference page by the last names of the authors (or editors).
  • If a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than a, an, or the.
  • Arrange same author sources using their last names every time. Arrange chronologically by date of publication


  • “References” is centered at the top of the page
  • Double spacing is used throughout
  • Use a hanging indent, so that the first line is at the margin and all following lines are indented.


Read more information about citing on-line sources.

Harris, J. G. The return of the witch hunts. Witchhunt Information Page. Retrieved May 28, 1996 from


Booth, W. (1990, October 29). Monkeying with language: Is chimp using words or merely aping handlers? The Washington Post, p. A3.


Gibbons, A. (1991). Déjà vu all over again: Chimp-language wars. Science, 251,1561-1562.

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.


Read more information about citing books.

Parker & K. R. Gibson (Eds.). (2000). “Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectives (pp.540-578). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Read more information about citing books.

Leakey, R., & Lewin, R. (1992). Origins reconsidered: In search of what makes us human. New York: Doubleday.


Lewin, R. (1991, April 29). Look who's talking now. New Scientist, 130, 49-52.


National Geographic Society (Producer). (1987). In the Shadow of Vesuvius [Videotape]. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.

Note: Cite material from an information service or database as you would any other material including all publishing information. At the end add the name of the service (i.e. Ask Eric) and the number the service assigns to the material.

Some of the information written on this page has been excerpted from handbook:
Hacker, D.
A Writer's Reference. (2003). (5th ed.). Boston: St. Martin's.
American Psychological Association. (2001).
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Updated January 28, 2005 by Renee Brown