Government publication

Treat the government agency as the author, giving the name of the government followed by the name of the agency.

  • United States. Bureau of the Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States. ed. Washington: GPO, 1997. Print.


Cite a pamphlet as you would a book.

  • United States. Dept. of the Interior. Natl. Park Service. National Design Competition for an Indian Memorial: Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. Washington: GPO, 1996. Print.

Published dissertation

Cite a published dissertation as you would a book, underlining (or italicizing) the title and giving the place of publication, the publisher, and the year of publication. After the title, add the word “Diss.,” the name of the institution, and the year the dissertation was written.

  • Damberg. Workers in Small Firms. Diss. Rand Graduate School, 1995. Santa Monica: Rand Cheryl L. Healthcare Reform: Distributional Consequences of an Employer Mandate for, 1996. Print.

Published proceedings of a conference

Cite published conference proceedings as you would a book, adding information about the conference after the title.

  • Chattel, Servant, or Citizen: Women's Status in the Church, State, and Sockily. Proc. of Irish Conf. of Historians, 1993. Belfast: Inst. of Irish Studies, 1995. Print.

Work of art

Cite the artist's name, followed by the title of the artwork, usually underlined, and the institution and city in which the artwork can be found.

  • Constable, John. Dedham Vale. Victoria and Albert Museum. London.

Musical composition

Cite the composer's name, followed by the title of the work. Underline the title of an opera, a ballet, or a composition identified by name, but do not underline or use quotation marks around a composition identified by number or form.

  • Copland, Aaron. Appalachian Spring. Shostakovich, Dmitri. Quartet no. 1 in C, op. 49. CD.

Personal letter

To cite a letter you have received, begin with the writer's name and add the phrase “Letter to the author,” followed by the date.

  • Cipriani, Karen. Letter to the author. 25 Apr. 1998. Print.

Lecture or public address

Cite the speaker's name, followed by the title of the lecture (if any) in quotation marks, the organization sponsoring the lecture, the location, and the date.

  • Middleton, Frank. “Louis Hayden and the Role of the Underground Railroad in Boston.” Boston Public Library, Boston. 6 Feb. 1998.

Personal interview

To cite an interview that you conducted, begin with the name of the person interviewed. Then write “Personal interview,” followed by the date of the interview.

  • Meeker, Dolores. Personal interview. 21 Apr. 1998.

Film or videotape

Begin with the title. For a film, cite the director and the lead actors or narrator (“Perf.” or “Narr.”), followed by the distributor and year. For a videotape, add the word “Videocassette” at the end of the citation.

The English Patient. Dir. Anthony Minghella. Perf. Ralph Fiennes, Juliette Binoche, Willem Dafoe, and Kirsten Scott Thomas. Miramax,1996. Videocassette.

Radio or television program

List the relevant information about the program in this order: the title of the program, underlined or italicized; the writer (“By”), director (“Dir.”), narrator (“Narr.”), producer (“Prod.”), or main actors (“Perf.”), if relevant; the series, neither underlined nor in quotation marks; the network; the local station (if any) on which you heard or saw the program and the city; and the date the program was broadcast. If a television episode or radio segment has a title, place that title, in quotation marks, before the program title.

  • “The New Face of Africa.” The Connection. Host Christopher Lydon. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR, Boston. 27 Mar. 1998. Radio.

Live performance of a play

Begin with the title of the play, followed by the author (“By”). Then include specific information about the live performance- the director (“Dir.”), the major actors (“Perf.”), the theater company, the theater and its location, and the date of the performance.

  • Six Characters in Search of an Author. By Luigi Pirandello. Dir. Robert Brunsrein. Perf. Jeremy Geidt, David Ackroyd, Monica Koskey, and Marianne Owen. American Repertory Theatre, Cambridge. 14 Jan. 1997.

Sound recording

Begin with the composer (or author, if the recording is spoken), followed by the title of the piece. Next list pertinent artists (such as performers, readers, or musicians) and the orchestra and conductor. End with the manufacturer and the date. Indicate the medium (such as “Audiocassette”) after the citation, followed by a period. Do not underline or italicize the name of the medium or enclose it in quotation marks.

  • Bizet, Georges. Carmen. Perf. Jennifer Larmore, Thomas Moser, Angela Gheorghiu, and Samuel Ramey. Bavarian State Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Giuseppe Sinopoli. Warner, 1996. Audiocassette.

Legal references

The citation of legal documents and law cases may be complicated. In general, do not underline or enclose in quotation marks laws, acts, and similar documents in either the text or the list of works cited. Names of law cases are both abbreviated and shortened, but the first important word of each party is always spelled out. In citing a case, include, in addition to the names of the first plaintiff and the first defendant, the volume, name (not underlined), and page (in that order) of the law report cited; the name of the court that decided the case; and the year in which it was decided.

  • 15 US Code. Sec. 78j(b). 1964. US Const. Art. 1, sec. 1 Stevens v. National Broadcasting Co. 148 USPQ 755. CA Super. Ct. 1966. Print.