Citation Styles and Citing Your Sources

  • Proper citation of the sources you use to support your research papers, presentations, and experiments is an essential element of being a student and a scholar. Not only does careful and correct citation allow others to understand your argument, identify the information that supports it, and locate that information, but it also ensures that you will avoid plagiarism and give proper credit to the scholars that came before you.

    In addition to the format and methods for citing references, each different style has specific rules about formatting your paper (including things like page numbering, title page layout, proper abbreviation, and more).

    The resources on this page provide examples, tips, and useful information about various citation formats and styles, so you can properly cite the resources you use in your academic work.

    Research Guides

    IUP Citation Style Guide: this research guide, created by IUP librarians, provides examples, links, and information on several citation styles.

    APA Style

    The American Psychological Association is the editorial and citation style commonly used in the social and behavioral styles. APA Style is one of the most commonly used styles at IUP. 

    • APA Style Home Page: The authoritative site for using APA Style in your research and writing.
    • APA Style Frequently Asked Questions: consult this FAQ to answer common questions about using APA Style.
    • OWL@Purdue APA Guide: this link takes you to the APA Style information assembled by Purdue University.
    • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition: borrow a print copy of the APA Style manual from the reference desk. 

    Chicago Style/Turabian

    Chicago Style is widely used in the humanities, arts, and history, and is the authoritative reference for publishers, proofreaders, and editors. Additionally, Chicago Style is the designated style adopted by IUP for all publications and promotional material. Turabian (named for the author, Kate Turabian) is a modified form of Chicago Style designed for students.

    • The Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide: a brief guide to the essential elements of Chicago Style citations, including the author-date method and the notes and bibliography method
    • OWL@Purdue Chicago Manual of Style: examples and explanations of Chicago Style compiled by the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University.
    • Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition: borrow a copy of the 17th edition Chicago Manual of Style from the reference desk. 
    • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disserations (Turabian): borrow a copy of the manual for Turabian style at the reference desk.

    MLA Style

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style has been widely adopted for instruction, research, and publication around the world.

    • MLA Style Center: A quick reference page for creating in-text citations, reference lists, and how to format your paper in the MLA Style
    • MLA Style Frequently Asked Questions: answers to common questions about using the MLA style.
    • OWL@Purdue MLA Guide: Resources and examples of MLA style citations and references, compiled by Purdue University's Online Writing Lab.
    • MLA Handbook, 8th Edition: borrow a print copy of the MLA Handbook from the reference desk.