Proper citation of the sources you use to support your research papers, presentations, and experiments is an essential element of being a student and a scholar. Not only does careful and correct citation allow others to understand your argument, identify
the information that supports it, and locate that information, but it also ensures that you will avoid plagiarism and give proper credit to the scholars that came before you.
In addition to the format and methods for citing references, each different style has specific rules about formatting your paper (including things like page numbering, title page layout, proper abbreviation, and more).
The resources on this page provide examples, tips, and useful information about various citation formats and styles, so you can properly cite the resources you use in your academic work.
IUP Citation Style Guide: this research guide, created by IUP librarians, provides examples, links, and information on several citation styles.
The American Psychological Association is the editorial and citation style commonly used in the social and behavioral styles. APA Style is one of the most commonly used styles at IUP.
Chicago Style is widely used in the humanities, arts, and history, and is the authoritative reference for publishers, proofreaders, and editors. Additionally, Chicago Style is the designated style adopted by IUP for all publications and promotional material.
Turabian (named for the author, Kate Turabian) is a modified form of Chicago Style designed for students.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style has been widely adopted for instruction, research, and publication around the world.
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